Anatomy – Urological Organs
It is the organ that is responsible for the purification of blood. By means of a complicated filtration mechanism it manages to extract from the blood all the surplus substances that are produced daily in the human body. These substances are mainly water, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium. It also cleanses various toxins and medications. This results in a balance between the income of these substances and the body’s own needs, eliminating what is left over. The kidney also makes some hormones such as erythropoietin (controls anemia) and renin (controls blood flow and blood pressure).
The kidney measures about 12-14 cm long by 8 cm wide and is surrounded by a layer of protective fat. Each kidney is located in the lumbar part, that is, in the posterior area of the abdomen. The right kidney is related to the liver and the duodenum, while the left kidney is related to the stomach, spleen and pancreas. In front of the kidneys is the intestinal pack.
The kidney is made up of several parts:
- Arteries and veins: They are thick and connect directly with the large vessels of the abdomen (aorta and cava). They take blood to the kidney and return it clean to the bloodstream.
- Parenchyma: It is the solid part of the kidney, where the renal cells and the structures that filter and concentrate the urine (neuron) are found and lead to the urinary tract (tubules) for their elimination. .
- Urinary tract: It is the device that collects the urine once purified, ready to be eliminated to the outside. It consists of papilla, calyces and renal pelvis. The urine drips from the tubules through the papillae and the urine is collected in the calyces and from these it passes to the renal pelvis. From here the urine enters the ureter that leads to the bladder, and from there to the outside.
It is a fleshy structure, pyramidal and few centimeters in diameter that rests on the upper part of each kidney. It has two parts, one external (or marrow) and one internal (or cortex). Altogether it is a gland with endocrine function, where the following hormones are produced:
- Cortisol: Involved in the general metabolism of the human body, especially in the regulation of fats, proteins and sugars. Also in the inflammatory mechanisms.
- Sexual steroids, such as estrogens and androgens: Involved in the regulation of sexual hormonal mechanisms.
- Aldosterone: Regulates blood pressure.
It is a thin tube that measures about 25-30 cm long and connects the kidney with the urinary bladder. Part of the renal pelvis, runs through the back of the abdomen (called retroperitoneum), reaches the pelvic region and flows into the lower part of the bladder, through a thin hole called the urethral meatus (not to be confused with the meatus of the urethra). Each kidney has its own ureter, therefore in the bladder each ureter empties into its own hole to the right and left. The ureter (and the renal pelvis) have a muscle in its wall that urges, through a serpenteante movement, the urine from top to bottom, facilitating its route from the kidney to the bladder. In the part closest to the bladder, the ureter has a valve system that allows the passage of urine to the bladder but, at the same time, prevents the backward movement of urine to the kidney (antireflux mechanism).
It is an organ in the form of a distensible spherical bag that is responsible for storing the urine that comes from the kidneys. Another very important function is the removal of urine to the outside through the urethra. While the bladder is filling, there is no sensation. Once you reach the point of being full (approximately 400 cc) appear the urge to urinate. When the subject decides urine, the bladder contracts and the urine is expelled to the outside with force.
The bladder is located in the pelvis, located in the center of the lower abdomen. Above it rests the entire slim intestinal pack. In women it is related to the uterus and the ovaries. In men, its mouth passes through a fibrous structure, the prostate.
The bladder has a powerful muscle called detrusor that is distributed over its entire surface and causes the necessary contraction to push urine out through the urethra. A precise valve system called the sphincter makes it possible for the urine to contain itself and not escape. At the time of urination the sphincters open to allow the controlled passage of urine.
It is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside. The urethra ends in the urethral meatus, through which the urine exits to the outside in the form of a jet. In women, the urethra is very short, measuring only 3 cm in length and the meatus is hidden between the folds of the lips less than the vulva. In man, the urethra is much longer because it runs the length of the penis, at the end of which it empties.
It is an exclusively male organ that is located at the mouth of the bladder, where it takes the form of a funnel and connects with the urethra. The prostate is very underdeveloped during childhood and youth, but after 40 years it begins to develop and grow in size, forming nodules that grow into the urethral canal.
The function of the prostate gland is sexual. Manufactures substances that are poured into semen at the time of ejaculation. These are nutritional substances for sperm that can remain active for hours and hours after being released into the vagina. The prostate does not intervene directly in urination although it is involved in urination because the urine passes through it during urination.
The prostate is located behind the pubic bones and connects the bladder with the perineal urethra. In depth it is located just in front of the rectum (final section of the intestine), which is why it is very easy to palpate it by means of a digital rectal examination.
The testicle is part of the male genital tract. In number of 2 are located in a bag of skin and elastic tissue called scrotum. As of puberty and throughout man’s life they make sperm. Each of the two testicles has its own sperm conduction system. This system is called seminal way.
The testes receive blood supply through the spermatic cord, where an artery and several veins circulate. The spermatic cord runs through the groin area and enters the abdomen.
The testicles have 2 functions:
- Manufacture of sperm, which are male reproductive cells.
- Manufacture of testosterone, which is the male sex hormone.
The penis, together with the testicles, makes up the external genital organ of man. It has the capacity to increase in size and remain rigid thanks to a blood filling mechanism with temporary occlusion of its outlet, thanks to the cavernous tissue that is inside. This phenomenon is known as an erection. The erection allows sexual intercourse. The measurement of the penis varies many between its flaccid and erect state.
The penis consists of the following parts:
- Body of the penis: Corresponds to its central cylindrical part of the penis. At rest it is flaccid and elastic, while in erection it increases in size and hardness. Inside are the penile urethra and the 2 corpora cavernosa, as well as veins and arteries.
- Glans: Set the final part of the penis. It has a cone shape and, like the urethra and the corpus cavernosum, it has spongy tissue with erectile capacity. It contains the final stretch of the urethra, so in addition to sexual function it is an important element of urination.
- Foreskin: </ strong> It is the skin that covers the end of the penis. It has the shape of a cylindrical cap and, under normal conditions, it is retractable, meaning that when the penis is erect it retreats towards the base of the glans leaving it exposed.
Inside the penis there are 2 types of main structures:
- Urethra: The portion of the urethra that corresponds to the penis is a tube of spongy walls that becomes tense in erection. Its function is to allow proper urination by passing urine to the outside inside. It empties into the urethral meatus at the tip of the glans.
- Corpora Cavernosa: They are two parallel structures along the penis strongly anchored to the pelvic bone. Inside there is a spongy and elastic tissue capable of holding blood at high pressure for a few minutes, causing erection.
It is the system of fine ducts that leads sperm from the testicle to the urethra, to be expelled to the outside by ejaculation.
It consists of several parts:
- Epididymis: It is a compact structure that is attached to the outer area of the testicle itself. It is he who first collects the newly formed sperm and leads them to the vas deferens. In the epididymis the progressive maturation of the spermatozoa occurs as they circulate.
- Deferential duct: </ strong> It is a fairly long duct (about 20 cm) that connects the epididymis with the seminal vesicles. Circulates through the groin within the spermatic cord. It empties into the seminal vesicles.
- Seminal vesicles: These are elongated bag-like structures filled with seminal fluid and sperm. They are located behind the prostate. They drain into the urethra right in the middle of the prostate. When the ejaculation takes place they are emptied abruptly and the semen goes out through the male urethra. At the moment of orgasm, the musculature of the pelvis and perineum contract and compress the seminal vesicles and the urethra making the ejaculation powerful.